LA COMPAGNIE DE JÉSUS(SJ) OU JESUITES


La Compagnie de Jésus est fondée en 1540 sous l’impulsion de Saint Ignace de Loyola.

Saint Ignace naît en Espagne en 1491. En 1521, il s’illustre militairement en défendant la citadelle de Pampelune, assiégée par les troupes françaises. Il galvanise les soldats démoralisés, mais la jambe droite brisée par un boulet de canon, il doit se rendre. Ramené à Loyola, il doit subir une longue convalescence. Le Seigneur se sert de ce temps pour l’interpeller Vigoureusement; à tel point qu’Ignace sort de cette période décidé à servir plutôt qu’un Roi temporel. Cette décision se confirme pendant son séjour de onze mois à Manresa, où il mène une vie de prière et de solitude. Il entreprend ensuite des études, qui le mèneront finalement à Paris. Dans la capitale française il forme un petit groupe très fervent de sept étudiants

.  Ce sont ceux-là qui commencent la Compagnie de Jésus, qui est approuvée par le Pape Paul III le 27 Septembre 1540.

A la mort de Saint Ignace en 1556, il y a plus de mille jésuites. Encore de son vivant, ses compagnons sont très actifs en Europe, ainsi qu’en Inde, au Japon et en Chine. Ils arrivent au Royaume Kongo en 1547. Dans la première moitié du 16e Siècle, ils fondent un collège à San Salvador, capitale du Royaume Kongo. Ils ne s’établissent cependant définitivement au Congo qu’en 1893. Aujourd’hui, ils sont à Kinshasa au Bas-Congo, au Bandundu, à Kisangani et à Lubumbashi. La province d’Afrique centrale (unité administrative) comptait en 1997 trois cent vingt-neuf membres résidants dont 296 en République Démocratique du Congo.

Dans l’archidiocèse de Bukavu, les jésuites s’occupent de la paroisse Saint Pierre Claver, du Collège Alfajiri, de la maison de retraites Amani, de l’œuvre des Cheche, de l’aumônerie de l’ISDR et de développement.  A travers le monde les jésuites sont au nombre de 22.000 et œuvre dans 130 pays différents.

La confiance dans l’homme constitue le trait fondamental du jésuite (prêtre ou frère)

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. Elle débouche sur le fameux ‘’humanisme jésuitique’’. C’est pourquoi le jésuite doit développer tous ses talents pour les mettre au service du maître et de la communauté humaine, pour la plus grande gloire de Dieu.  Ce fait explique la longue route à parcourir pour devenir jésuite.

Sa formation dure au total 12 ans pour le frère et 15 à 17 ans pour le Père. Ces années se répartissent comme suit:

  • 2 ans de Noviciat.
  • 3 ans de philosophie
  • 3 ans d’Etudes spéciales (graduat).
  • 2 ans de régence (stage dans un collège ou une paroisse où le jeune jésuite fait l’expérience de l’action apostolique).
  • 5 ans de théologie. A la fin de la théologie, il s’offre une éventualité de continuer les études spéciales (licence).

Mais avant de prononcer les derniers vœux (vœux solennels), une troisième année de noviciat (le troisième an) permet au jeune jésuite de reprendre et de synthétiser tout cet acquit dans la vie spirituelle d’un homme mûr.

La compagnie de Jésus pose les conditions d’admission suivantes (pour la province d’Afrique centrale):

  • Equilibre humain (santé physique, mentale,…)
  • Dispositions intellectuelles (avoir réussi avec au moins 55% des points aux examens d’Etat).
  • Stage de vie spirituelle suivie.
  • Situation économique de la famille
  • Disponibilité et droiture d’intention.
  • Engagement apostolique avant l’admission.
  • Connaissance mutuelle (institut prend son temps pour connaître le candidat et lui offre également la possibilité de connaître la congrégation.

Cette vie particulièrement exigeante tire sa pertinence du charisme spécifique de cet institut religieux, à savoir, la recherche de la volonté de Dieu dans la vie des membres et dans le choix des ministères si bien que les jésuites ne se limitent d’avance à aucune forme d’action, l’important pour eux étant le meilleur service de Dieu, quel qu’il soit.