Tribunal Ecclésiastique de Bukavu

Préalable

  1. l’Archidiocèse de Bukavu jouit d’une double possibilité canonique pour ce qui concerne le Tribunal Ecclésiastique. En tant que Diocèse, il peut avoir un Tribunal Ecclésiastique diocésain de première instance. En tant que siège métropolitain de la Province ecclésiastique du Kivu, comprenant six diocèses, il peut jouir d’un Tribunal ecclésiastique provincial également de première instance. Ces deux possibilités sont alternatives et, de fait, reviennent dans l’histoire de l’Archidiocèse.
  2. Dans sa première partie le présent historique concerne la période du Tribunal ecclésiastique de Bukavu en tant que provincial, obligatoirement collégial. Dans la deuxième partie il concerne le Tribunal ecclésiastique de Bukavu en tant que diocésain, dans les deux possibilités canoniques de Tribunal collégial ou de Tribunal à Juge unique.

I. TRIBUNAL ECCLESIASTIQUE PROVINCIAL

  1. Epoque ancienne
  • Suite à la constitution de la Province ecclésiastique du Kivu, l’Archidiocèse de Bukavu est devenu le siège d’un Tribunal ecclésiastique provincial.
  • Dans sa lettre du 21.08.1960, l’Archevêque Mgr Louis Van Steene donnait cette nouvelle aux Ordinaires du Kivu : « Par son décret du 31 mai 1960, n. 2786, la S.C.P.F. a agréé notre demande d’ériger un Tribunal de 1ère instance à Bukavu pour toute la Province Ecclésiastique de Bukavu, le Tribunal de 2ème instance étant celui de Kabgaye ». Parmi les membres du Tribunal, l’Official était le P. Lauwers et l’un des juges était Mgr Mulindwa, alors Vicaire Général de l’Archidiocèse.
  • Le dernier document qui présente la composition du personnel du Tribunal ecclésiastique provincial remonte au 28/06/1977 et indique comme Official le P
    . Alphonse De Beukelaer. Dans une lettre privée du 23/06/1989, l’Archevêque Mgr Mulindwa écrit au destinataire : « Comme vous le savez, ce Tribunal a existé mais a cessé de fonctionner depuis un bon moment, faute de personnel ».

2. Epoque moderne

  • Le Tribunal ecclésiastique provincial a été érigé à nouveau le 24/03/1990 par un décret signé par la Conférence Episcopale de la Province du Kivu (CEPKI).
  • L’approbation du S.Siège a eu lieu le 18/09/1990 par le décret du Cardinal Silvestrini, Préfet du Suprême Tribunal de la Signature Apostolique.
  • Le premier Vicaire judiciaire de ce Tribunal fut l’Abbé Alphonse KAKULE, qui mit tout en œuvre pour l’organiser en personnel et en structures. Malheureusement, la mort le ravit brusquement le 01/07/1992.
  • Entre temps, en mai 1992, la CEPKI confia la charge de vicaire judiciaire à l’Abbé Jean-Marie BALEGAMIRE, qui réussit à composer un personnel suffisant pour le fonctionnement du Tribunal provincial

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    . Dans leur première réunion de nature programmatique, le 12/01/1993, les membres du Tribunal proposèrent à Mgr l’Archevêque, en tant que Président de la CEPKI, d’ouvrir officiellement le Tribunal provincial à la date du 09/02/1993. La proposition fut acceptée et, ensuite, bien réalisée.

  • Son siège provisoire était dans l’ancien bureau paroissial d’Ibanda, qui est contigu à la Salle Concordia. Le calendrier de travail fixait les séances et les audiences dans un seul jour par mois, qui était le deuxième mardi de chaque mois.
  • Malheureusement, le Tribunal provincial n’a pu fonctionner que peu de temps. Fin 1994, l’Archevêque Mgr MUNZIHIRWA décida de suspendre son activité pour plusieurs raisons, notamment pour difficultés de financement, ainsi que pour manque de personnel et de financement.

 II. TRIBUNAL ECCLESIATIQUE DIOCESAIN

  1. Tribunal diocésain collégial
  • Vue l’impossibilité de fonctionnement d’un Tribunal ecclésiastique à caractère provincial, l’Archevêque Mgr KATALIKO conçut l’idée d’un Tribunal ecclésiastique diocésain à caractère collégial, puisque dans l’Archidiocèse il y avait un personnel suffisant pour son fonctionnement. Il exprima ce projet dans la Circulaire n° 4/99 du 28/12/1999, où il faisait la liste du personnel du Tribunal, nommait le P
    . Pio DE MATTIA Vicaire judiciaire et fixait le siège du Tribunal à l’Avenue Mbaki, n°12. Malheureusement, rien ne se réalisa à cause de l’exil de l’Archevêque, suivi de son décès inopiné à Rome le 04/10/2000.
  • Le 05/01/2001, Mgr GWAMUHANYA envoya à la Conférence Episcopale du Congo (CENCO) une lettre demandant l’approbation de ce Tribunal à Juge unique et émana d’un décret de création de ce même Tribunal. Le Vicaire judiciaire et le siège du Tribunal étaient les mêmes qu’auparavant.
  • Le nouvel Archevêque, Mgr Charles KAMBALE Mbogha, confirma cette dernière formule de Tribunal à Juge unique, dont l’activité pouvait donner réponse aux attentes de tant de fidèles en crise de mariage.
  • Suite aux résistances et au silence de la Secrétairerie de la CENCO, bien qu’en thérapie à l’étranger, l’Archevêque à plusieurs reprises adressa des lettres au Cardinal ETSOU, président de la CENCO, pour solliciter l’approbation du Tribunal diocésain à Juge unique. En dépit des réponses du Cardinal toujours favorables, la Secrétairerie de la CENCO continuait dans son opposition en abordant des raisons fort douteuses.
  • Pour dépasser cette lamentable impasse, le 10/03/2003 l’Archevêque interpella directement le Suprême Tribunal de la Signature Apostolique, qui, par sa lettre du 06/05/2003, donna volontiers son accord.
  • Le 08/12/2003, l’Archevêque publia le décret instituant le Tribunal diocésain à Juge unique. Le même jour il envoya les décrets de nomination aux membres du Tribunal, qui sont les suivants : P. Pio DE MATTIA, Vicaire judiciaire et Juge unique ; l’Abbé Jean-Marie BALEGAMIRE, Défenseur du lien ; Sr BIREMBANO Marie Michel, Notaire. Le 30/12/2003, devant l’Archevêque et en présence de tous les Abbés, les Religieux, les Religieuses et bon nombre de fidèles laïcs réunis dans la Salle Concordia pour souhaiter la Bonne Année à Son Excellence, ils firent la Profession de Foi ainsi que le serment de Fidélité et aussitôt entamèrent leur travail au début de janvier 2004.
  • Plusieurs mois passèrent dans la recherche d’un Tribunal de deuxième instance, tel qu’exigé par les normes canoniques et judiciaires pour les causes de nullité de mariage. Après une réponse négative du Cardinal DANNEELS, Archevêque de Malines-Breuxelles, et ayant constaté l’impossibilité de collaboration avec le Tribunal ecclésiastique de Kisangani, encore une fois, le 17/06/2004 l’Archevêque s’adressa au Cardinal ETSOU qui donna fin janvier une réponse favorable.
  • Par sa lettre du 20/10/2005, l’Administrateur diocésain, Mgr François-Xavier MAROY a nommé Défenseur du lien l’Abbé Alphonse MAKELELE, en remplacement de l’Abbé Jean-Marie BALEGAMIRE, trop pris par les activités de l’UCB.
  • Au début, les dossiers déposés au Tribunal diocésain étaient au nombre de 50 cas. A ce jour, 4 sont les causes envoyées à la deuxième instance ; 4 sont en cours, un petit nombre a été transféré au niveau administratif ou retiré par les concernés ou déclassés par inaction des demandeurs, enfin, 35 sont les dossiers restants.